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Untitled
Posted by Anonymous on Sun 22nd Feb 2015 22:39
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  1. http://pof.kpaste.net/
  2.  
  3. [> Relevant pastebins <]
  4. #-> vim masterrace - http://vim.kpaste.net/
  5. #-> A bit of history - http://nixhist.kpaste.net/
  6. #-> Security - http://secsav.kpaste.net/
  7.  
  8.  
  9. # Differences between distros
  10. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2vgc9a/whats_the_difference_between_all_these_versions/
  11.  
  12.  
  13. [ Monitoring tools ]
  14. ## Network monitoring
  15. # Pretty Ping!
  16. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1op98a/prettypingsh_a_better_ui_for_watching_ping/
  17. # Other
  18. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2s1q28/useful_commandline_network_monitors_on_linux/
  19.  
  20. # Logcheck, be lazy with checking logs
  21. http://logcheck.org/
  22. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1QgbnK45IRg&feature=player_detailpage&list=PL170C8C4DDB2961B2&t=2999
  23. https://www.reddit.com/r/homelab/comments/2fgt30/monitoring_logs_with_elk_logstash_kibana/
  24.  
  25. # 80 Linux Monitoring Tools for SysAdmins - Server Density Blog (blog.serverdensity.com)
  26. https://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/2v5r3y/80_linux_monitoring_tools_for_sysadmins_server/
  27. # How to analyze and view Apache web server logs interactively on Linux (xmodulo.com)
  28. https://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/2vedpp/how_to_analyze_and_view_apache_web_server_logs/
  29.  
  30.  
  31. ## Process mgmt
  32. # How to run a process on a specific core
  33. http://xmodulo.com/2013/10/run-program-process-specific-cpu-cores-linux.html
  34. # How to kill process
  35. http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/kill-process-in-linux-or-terminate-a-process-in-unix-or-linux-systems/
  36.  
  37. # How to roll out your own Debian distro
  38. http://www.staldal.nu/tech/2011/12/11/how-to-roll-your-own-debian-based-linux-distro/
  39.  
  40. # Run stuff collaboratively on a server.
  41. http://www.reddit.com/r/sysadmin/comments/tqo7b/til_rundeck_is_a_great_tool_to_run_commands/
  42.  
  43. # Generate random strings
  44. http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/30184/10-ways-to-generate-a-random-password-from-the-command-line/
  45.  
  46. # twander file manager
  47. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1ydl8t/pcman_file_manager_120_gets_separated_desktop/cfjuw9u
  48.  
  49. # Why u no open hardware :(
  50. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/20zg0h/first_ubuntu_tablets_to_launch_this_autumn/cg86z25
  51.  
  52. # About docs
  53. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/24jzyg/well_thats_a_super_helpful_installation_error/ch887pw
  54.  
  55. # Pipe through Internet!
  56. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/24uyqo/til_you_can_pipe_through_internet/
  57.  
  58. # Persistent (full?) install linux on usb for multiple computers with little to no damage? (self.linux)
  59. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2gqovx/persistent_full_install_linux_on_usb_for_multiple/
  60.  
  61. # 3D filesystem browser
  62. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2hky9x/tdfsb_3d_filesystem_browser/
  63.  
  64. # IPcalc
  65. http://jodies.de/ipcalc
  66.  
  67. # Photoshop on Linux
  68. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2nbe8y/it_can_be_done_photoshop_cs5_on_linux_with_wine/
  69.  
  70. # Data recovery
  71. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2ov9tu/safecopy_recover_data_from_corrupt_media/
  72.  
  73. # Vbox - How to shared folders - https://forums.virtualbox.org/viewtopic.php?t=15868
  74.  
  75.  
  76.  
  77. [[[ Pro and work ]]]
  78. # I've scored an in-person interview for a Junior Linux Admin position. Recommendations on what to take to the interview? (self.linuxadmin)
  79. https://ssl.reddit.com/r/linuxadmin/comments/2v0905/ive_scored_an_inperson_interview_for_a_junior/
  80.  
  81.  
  82.  
  83. [[[ General resources & Blogs ]]]
  84.  
  85. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/21rm3o/what_is_a_useful_linux_tool_that_you_use_that/
  86. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux4noobs/comments/2ao9tp/want_to_learn_to_be_a_linux_sysadmin/
  87.  
  88. http://inconsolation.wordpress.com/index/
  89. http://www.catonmat.net/blog/bash-one-liners-explained-part-one/
  90. http://mindspill.net/computing/linux-notes/
  91. http://conqueringthecommandline.com/
  92. http://n0where.net/open-source-sysadmin-resources/
  93. https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Servers
  94.  
  95. # installgentoo
  96. https://wiki.installgentoo.com/index.php?title=Main_Page
  97.  
  98. # About filesystem
  99. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1ypoz8/take_the_linux_filesystem_tour/
  100.  
  101. # Hardlinks & Softlinks
  102. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/251mb8/the_difference_between_hard_and_soft_links/
  103.  
  104. # X11 / Xorg / graphics stack explained
  105. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2acvmo/explaining_x11_for_the_rest_of_us/
  106. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2b8ap8/heartwrenching_story_of_opengl/
  107. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1twuhi/xplain_explaining_x11_for_the_rest_of_us_jasper/
  108.  
  109. # (Illustrated) SSH
  110. http://chamibuddhika.wordpress.com/2012/03/21/ssh-tunnelling-explained/
  111. http://www.unixwiz.net/techtips/ssh-agent-forwarding.html
  112. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2iflp3/prefixed_multihop_ssh_wildcard_configurations/
  113. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2r539r/why_arent_we_using_ssh_for_everything/
  114.  
  115. # The Fascinating World of Linux System Calls (sysdigcloud.com)
  116. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2pm6lo/the_fascinating_world_of_linux_system_calls/
  117.  
  118. # systemd for Administrators, Part 1
  119. http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/systemd-for-admins-1.html
  120. # systemd for users
  121. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2dvmdn/what_do_you_as_a_user_love_about_systemd/
  122.  
  123. # Rsync difference between --checksum and --ignore-times options
  124. http://serverfault.com/questions/211005/rsync-difference-between-checksum-and-ignore-times-options
  125. http://tutorials.jenkov.com/rsync/checksums.html
  126.  
  127. # wget useful commands
  128. https://www.reddit.com/r/opendirectories/comments/2rfg79/20_wget_commands_that_can_be_used_to_accomplish/
  129.  
  130. # Rute User's Tutorial and Exposition
  131. http://rute.2038bug.com/index.html.gz
  132.  
  133. # Explains commands and their flags. VERY USEFUL!
  134. http://explainshell.com/
  135.  
  136. # IBM developer works
  137. http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/
  138.  
  139. # Debian minimal
  140. http://linuxforcynics.com/how-to/minimal-debian-install
  141. http://ask.debian.net/questions/what-s-the-first-thing-you-do-after-you-install-debian
  142.  
  143. # BroPages
  144. http://bropages.org/browse
  145.  
  146. # Cron syntax in plain English
  147. http://cronchecker.net/
  148.  
  149. # Install WordPress on CentOS 6.x
  150. http://www.geekpeek.net/install-wordpress-on-centos/
  151. http://www.tecmint.com/install-wordpress-using-lamp-or-lemp-on-rhel-centos-fedora/
  152.  
  153.  
  154. # GRUB
  155. http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1195275
  156. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux4noobs/comments/2ex4ex/short_introduction_into_grub_internals/
  157.  
  158. # Visualize memory
  159. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2mrrjb/how_to_visualize_memory_usage_on_linux/
  160.  
  161. # inotify (trigger)
  162. https://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/2runmh/how_you_can_use_inotifytools_to_monitor_file/
  163.  
  164.  
  165. [ Nginx ]
  166. # docs
  167. https://github.com/ngx/docs
  168. http://wiki.nginx.org/Main
  169.  
  170. # Optimizing nginx
  171. http://blog.zachorr.com/nginx-setup/
  172.  
  173. # How to redirect nginx
  174. http://www.servernoobs.com/nginx-redirect-url-with-http1-1-301-moved-permanently-header/?doing_wp_cron=1393287314.0689818859100341796875
  175.  
  176. # Hardening nginx with better cyphers
  177. https://www.reddit.com/r/netsec/comments/2pqsx9/harden_ssl_in_nginx_with_stronger_ciphers_newer/
  178.  
  179.  
  180. [ Docker ]
  181. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2bxxye/introduction_to_docker/
  182. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2c1csz/whos_using_docker/
  183. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2bedwv/docker_security_with_selinux/
  184. https://github.com/shofetim/docker-skype
  185.  
  186.  
  187. [ Namespaces ]
  188. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2n7mol/linux_namespaces_powerful_isolation_os_level/
  189. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2n17b7/a_guide_to_linux_namespaces_and_environment/
  190. # cgroups
  191. http://lwn.net/Articles/603762/
  192.  
  193.  
  194. [ tmux ]
  195. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2arczq/learn_tmux_with_minimul/
  196. http://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/240oyo/mucks_a_session_manager_for_gnu_screen_and_tmux/
  197. http://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/25tcfk/practical_tmux/
  198.  
  199. # Memory leak improvement under Linux - http://tmux.kpaste.net/ee9c3
  200.  
  201.  
  202. [ LOL / regex ]
  203. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12985082
  204. http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1732348/regex-match-open-tags-except-xhtml-self-contained-tags/1732454
  205.  
  206. # Validating e-mail addresses, easy way, and the hard way.
  207. http://blog.mattheworiordan.com/post/13174566389/url-regular-expression-for-links-with-or-without-the
  208. http://www.ex-parrot.com/pdw/Mail-RFC822-Address.html
  209.  
  210. # Intro to regex
  211. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EkluES9Rvak
  212.  
  213. # Awk primer
  214. https://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/2smkhm/awk_in_20_minutes/
  215. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/29hskb/an_awk_primer_wikibooks_open_books_for_an_open/
  216.  
  217.  
  218. [ LaTeX ]
  219. www.latextemplates.com
  220. https://www.writelatex.com/
  221. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2clx22/learning_latex_on_linux/
  222.  
  223.  
  224. [ YouTube chans ]
  225. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbNxlZZVmfP8n84ag-rGpMg/videos
  226. https://www.youtube.com/user/theurbanpenguin/videos?view=1&flow=list
  227. https://www.youtube.com/user/sabiddle/videos
  228. # scripting
  229. http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLcUid3OP_4OXOUqYTDGjq-iEwtBf-3l2E
  230.  
  231.  
  232. [[[ ~ Audio ~ ]]]
  233.  
  234. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1nun4f/using_linux_to_make_music_whats_the_deal/
  235. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2iwd2y/is_linux_suitable_for_audio_recordingproduction/
  236. https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Pro_Audio
  237.  
  238. http://alsa.opensrc.org/
  239. http://www.sabi.co.uk/Notes/linuxSoundALSA.html
  240. http://www.sabi.co.uk/Notes/linuxSoundLatency.html
  241.  
  242. http://tuxradar.com/content/how-it-works-linux-audio-explained
  243. http://stackoverflow.com/questions/20118941/linux-audio-sub-systems
  244. http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/guide-to-sound-apis.html
  245.  
  246. https://forum.ableton.com/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=187391
  247.  
  248. https://github.com/wedesoft/hornetseye-alsa
  249. https://github.com/torvalds/linux/tree/master/Documentation/sound/alsa
  250.  
  251. http://manual.ardour.org/synchronization/latency-and-latency-compensation/
  252.  
  253. # General Reddit threads
  254. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/236a5l/can_someone_make_something_akin_to_wayland_but/
  255. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2sutds/my_band_pneumonia_recorded_our_first_album_using/
  256.  
  257. # Dynamic Range Compression for PulseAudio
  258. https://www.bfccomputing.com/dynamic-range-compression-for-pulseaudio/
  259.  
  260. # ALSA / Pulseaudio for pro audio discussion
  261. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2hv73a/what_is_the_one_thing_you_wish_linux_had_natively/ckwd9mk
  262.  
  263. # Config
  264. http://wiki.linuxaudio.org/wiki/system%20configuration#build_your_own_real-time_kernel_on_debian_wheezy_or_later
  265. http://www.penguinproducer.com/Blog/2011/12/setting-up-a-studio-with-ubuntu/
  266.  
  267. # RIP CDs
  268. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2ijhdj/gnu_ddrescue_119_released/cl2pofg
  269.  
  270. # Speech / Voice recognition
  271. http://grasch.net/node/22
  272. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2jhzle/the_state_of_voice_recognition_software_within/https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2jhzle/the_state_of_voice_recognition_software_within/
  273.  
  274. # Learn piano
  275. http://pianobooster.sourceforge.net/
  276.  
  277. # The power of (GC)C
  278. echo "main(i){for(i=0;;i++)putchar(((i*(i>>17|i>>9)&46&i>>3))^(i&i>>10|i>>100));}" | gcc -w -x c - && ./a.out | aplay
  279.  
  280. # Troubleshooting
  281. lsusb / lspci
  282. cat /proc/asound/cards
  283. aplay -l
  284. aplay-L
  285.  
  286.  
  287.  
  288. [[[ Alternative UI ]]]
  289.  
  290. # Dex UI - Futuristic/Sci-Fi Interface Programmed In openFrameworks (nnkd.org)
  291. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2t0vjv/dex_ui_futuristicscifi_interface_programmed_in/
  292.  
  293. # Eagle Mode - Zoomable User Interface (YouTube)
  294. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1nprrh/eagle_mode_zoomable_user_interface_youtube/
  295.  
  296. # Wayland 3D Compositor on Oculus Rift (youtube.com)
  297. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/287nup/wayland_3d_compositor_on_oculus_rift/
  298.  
  299.  
  300.  
  301. [[[ GAEMZ ]]]
  302. # TribesNext (Tribes2 re-implementation) under Linux
  303. http://www.tribesnext.com/forum/index.php?topic=2095.0
  304. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdyxo_tauNQ
  305.  
  306. # RetroRig
  307. http://www.reddit.com/r/LinuxActionShow/comments/25wndc/retrorig_a_personal_project_i_hope_everyone/
  308.  
  309.  
  310.  
  311. [[[ Damage ]]]
  312.  
  313. [ Prevent ]
  314. # Backup ideas
  315. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2qtyby/what_does_rlinux_use_to_backup_their_computers/
  316. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2v30rm/what_is_your_preferred_method_to_transfer_your/
  317.  
  318. # How to shred recursively in directories
  319. http://www.linuxforums.org/forum/miscellaneous/46693-how-shred-entire-directory-tree.html#post257616
  320.  
  321. # What to do when altering remote machines
  322. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1kdf37/what_are_some_of_your_major_linux_fk_ups/cbnzb11
  323.  
  324. [ Control ]
  325. http://serverfault.com/questions/218005/how-do-i-deal-with-a-compromised-server
  326.  
  327.  
  328.  
  329. [[[ Shell & Scripting ]]]
  330. http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/ubuntu/keyboard-shortcuts-for-bash-command-shell-for-ubuntu-debian-suse-redhat-linux-etc/
  331. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2foinb/what_is_the_exact_difference_between_a_terminal_a/
  332.  
  333. Learn:
  334. http://www.linuxtopia.org/online_books/bash_guide_for_beginners/index.html
  335. http://guide.bash.academy/
  336. http://mywiki.wooledge.org/
  337. http://bash.cyberciti.biz/guide/Main_Page
  338.  
  339. Advanced / reference:
  340. http://wiki.bash-hackers.org/doku.php
  341. http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/bashref.html#Introduction
  342. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/235v51/better_bash_scripting_in_15_minutes/
  343. http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO.html
  344.  
  345. # Command shortcuts - http://bash.kpaste.net/1620c
  346.  
  347. # About terminals
  348. http://linuxgazette.net/137/anonymous.html
  349.  
  350. # Customization
  351. http://colourco.de/
  352. http://pln.jonas.me/xterm-colors
  353. http://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/23c4us/the_bash_prompt/
  354. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2iytrs/terminalsexy_terminal_color_scheme_designer/
  355. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2uf5uu/this_is_my_bash_prompt_which_is_your_favorite/
  356.  
  357.  
  358. # Moar advice
  359. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2dwe4y/dae_have_a_bash_script_template_you_generally/
  360.  
  361. # Bash search suggest box
  362. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2a4b80/bash_history_suggest_box/
  363.  
  364. # How does the Shellshock exploit work?
  365. http://fedoramagazine.org/shellshock-how-does-it-actually-work/
  366. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2hlwwz/stackexchanges_top_answer_on_shellshock_and_why/
  367.  
  368.  
  369. # Fav minimalist CLI apps
  370. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2psson/whatre_your_favorite_cli_and_minimalistic/
  371.  
  372. # Fav aliases
  373. https://www.reddit.com/r/commandline/comments/2tjqz2/favorite_aliases/
  374.  
  375. # HOWTO: Ubuntu CLI versions & Framebuffer Programs
  376. http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=882596
  377.  
  378. # Filenames in Shell: How to do it correctly (dwheeler.com)
  379. https://www.reddit.com/r/programming/comments/qhgj0/filenames_in_shell_how_to_do_it_correctly/
  380.  
  381. # Cool shit with ls
  382. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/hejra/til_nifty_ls_option_for_displaying_directories/
  383.  
  384. # Bash vs. Zsh
  385. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/2fubpn/zsh_proscons/
  386.  
  387.  
  388.  
  389. [[[ Drama ]]]
  390. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/1z0vig/ffmpeg_may_return_to_debian_and_by_extend_ubuntu/cfpjqtj
  391.  
  392.  
  393.  
  394. [[[ urxvt ]]]
  395. https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/rxvt-unicode
  396. http://wiki.afterstep.org/index.php?title=Rxvt-Unicode_Configuration_Tutorial
  397. http://manpages.ubuntu.com/manpages/precise/man7/urxvt.7.html
  398.  
  399.  
  400. [[[ FreeNAS ]]]
  401. # Check temps
  402. http://forums.freenas.org/index.php?threads/how-to-monitor-system-cpu-hdd-mobo-gpu-temperatures-on-freenas-8.2994/
  403.  
  404. # Checklist
  405. https://www.reddit.com/r/freenas/comments/1vw9ic/thinking_about_freenas_but_getting_overwhelmed/
  406.  
  407. # Backup config files automatically
  408. https://forums.freenas.org/index.php?threads/backup-config-file-every-night-automatically.8237/
  409.  
  410. # Persistent changes in the filesystem - http://kpaste.net/a2c0299
  411.  
  412. # The connection problem:
  413. https://www.reddit.com/r/linux4noobs/comments/2q2cn1/i_want_to_connect_to_my_isolated_nas_but_at_the/
  414. # Solutions:
  415. http://lamarque-lvs.blogspot.nl/2011/11/networkmanager-per-device-routing.html
  416. http://askubuntu.com/questions/89364/force-network-manager-to-use-wireless-for-an-internet-connection
  417. https://superuser.com/questions/9586/how-do-i-setup-ubuntu-linuxs-network-manager-to-selectively-route-network-traff
  418. http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2161887
  419.  
  420.  
  421. [[[ Hardware ]]]
  422. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/22cnui/pc_engines_apu_system_boards_3x_gige_2_or_4_gb/
  423. http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/226izd/intel_releases_99_minnowboard_max_an_opensource/
  424.  
  425.  
  426.  
  427. [[[ TODO: ]]]
  428. Learn the filesystem hierarchy and major bits such as your bootloader, init system or systemd, etc
  429. File shares (Samba, NFS, iSCSI)
  430. Network Services (SSHD, DNS, DHCP, PXE, TFTP, FTP, etc)
  431. Automation (Scripting, Configuration management ie Ansible, Puppet, Chef, Saltstack)
  432. Hardening, Security and Accounts (IPTables, SELinux, patching/repository management, cgroups, encryption, permissions, ldap and kerberos SSO)
  433.  
  434.  
  435. ======================================================================
  436. HANDY COMMANDOS
  437.  
  438. ---
  439. # Archive directory
  440. tar -cvWf archive_name.tar dir_name
  441.  
  442. # Extract archive
  443. tar -xvf archive_name.tar
  444.  
  445. # GPG encrypt
  446. gpg -ac archive_name.tar
  447.  
  448. # GPG decrypt
  449. gpg -d archive_name.tar.asc > archive_name.tar
  450.  
  451. ---
  452. # CLI pastebin alias
  453. alias apaste='curl -F '\''paste=<-'\'' http://apaste.info/store'
  454.  
  455. # Do The Right Extract
  456. http://brettcsmith.org/2007/dtrx/
  457.  
  458. # How to check install size of packages (debian based)
  459. dpkg-query -Wf '${Installed-Size}\t${Package}\n' | sort -n | less
  460.  
  461. # Badblocks
  462. badblocks -nsv -p2 -o ./badblocksresult.txt /dev/sdX
  463.  
  464. # Watch progress of dd
  465. watch -n 1 killall -USR1 dd
  466.  
  467. # What's the best rsync command?
  468. rsync -avPHSxh
  469.  
  470. # Superfind
  471. http://stackoverflow.com/questions/16956810/finding-all-files-containing-a-text-string-on-linux
  472.  
  473. # List only dirs and files starting with a . (dot)
  474. ls -d .[^.]*
  475.  
  476.  
  477. diff <(ls /tmp/folder1) <(ls /tmp/folder2) # diff output of 2 commands
  478. diff -r /tmp/folder1 /tmp/folder2 # diff 2 dirs
  479.  
  480. # Substitute string1 to string2 in every file in a given path
  481. find path -type f -exec sed -i 's/string1/string2/' {} \;
  482.  
  483. ## in vim:
  484. # Visually select a block of text and prepend a '#' to it
  485. 1. Visually select block
  486. 2. Ctrl+v I # Esc
  487. # Do the reverse (remove prepending '#' characters)
  488. 1. Visually select block
  489. 2. Ctrl+v 0 x

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